Issue number: 
Osintsev Dmitriy
Doctor of legal sciences, professor, Ural State Law University (Yekaterinburg)


In the current legal science there are two opposite trends in developing the logic rules of legal thinking. The first one could be described as a logic of transformed forms when a professional jurist uses the «second-order» concepts initially designed as a reflection of the spontaneous establishment of natural relations, which were reproduced in the traditional behaviours and official documents, but had lost their primal sense and meaning over time. However, the rules of their constructing and combining allow organizing legal texts and making the real life circumstances compatible with them, although the results may be ridiculous, absurd and merely neutral.

The second trend proposes a much more sophisticated structure of the logic rules of legal thinking. It emerged after the medieval legal orders had been abandoned and the absolute supreme power had enhanced. At that time philosophers provoked a petty debate about the amount of possibilities and a utopian situation aroused when all people were endowed with abilities and desires to live in legal order and to be part of a spiritual culture. However, such understanding of law led to the question on how to ensure the compliance of legal regulations with the conceived model of a perfect legal culture by using the legal instruments. In other words, there are not only the transformed forms of legal constructions, but also a perfect legal condition, which could be perceived and designed by means of other sciences. And there is no any layer called «natural law» between this natural condition and the artificial norms of management (legal regulations).

Such a methodological and ideological discourse has resulted in a special logic of legal thinking: the wide empowerment is a framework of any behaviour, with certain rare exceptions (a number of them should be rapidly reduced, and a moral and laws of nature do not count), all public and social institutions are subservient to the unrestrained energy of a personality.

Humans develop laws and a formal jurisprudence in order not to figure out all the time the content and the meaning of these phenomena, not to wonder how they should behave in known situations. Law is considered as a reference point for the interested parties to relations, which helps choose their life positions. Law couldn’t change the spontaneously established order, doesn’t constitute new laws of nature, economics, social life, etc., but it may formalize them, and not more than that.

The actual legal practice presents a very different picture: prohibitions and permissions are not an inherent part of it, but its genesis (prohibitions indicate a natural inability or malignancy of a deed, and permission doesn’t need a formal approval). Meanwhile, there might be the universal binding and the empowering types of legal regulation, and the mechanism of their interpretation represents a shift of natural and artificial paradigms: full understanding of the spontaneous order of things, complete replacement of it with the order of management, deadlock as a result of discovering natural processes by means of the formal legal mechanisms, recognition that the technological maps of management, reproduced in the legal acts, are necessary and sufficient. In other words, the logic of legal thinking is not about searching for the rules of how to come to compelling conclusions, but rather about certain procedural algorithms, which allow the participants of legal communications to behave smoothly, optimally and sustainably in any situation.

Key words: 
legal logic, legal understanding, types of legal regulation, legal hermeneutics, exceptions in law, legal thinking


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