THE LOGIC OF LEGAL UNDERSTANDING AND THE WAYS OF LEGAL PERCEPTION

English
Year: 
2017
Issue number: 
1
Author: 
Osintsev Dmitriy
Doctor of law, professor, Ural State Law University (Yekaterinburg)

Resume:

In the current legal science there are two opposite trends in developing the logic rules of legal thinking. The first one could be described as a logic of transformed forms when a professional jurist uses the «second-order» concepts initially designed as a reflection of the spontaneous establishment of natural relations, which were reproduced in the traditional behaviours and official documents, but had lost their primal sense and meaning over time. However, the rules of their constructing and combining allow organizing legal texts and making the real life circumstances compatible with them, although the results may be ridiculous, absurd and merely neutral.

The second trend proposes a much more sophisticated structure of the logic rules of legal thinking. It emerged after the medieval legal orders had been abandoned and the absolute supreme power had enhanced. At that time philosophers provoked a petty debate about the amount of possibilities and a utopian situation aroused when all people were endowed with abilities and desires to live in legal order and to be part of a spiritual culture. However, such understanding of law led to the question on how to ensure the compliance of legal regulations with the conceived model of a perfect legal culture by using the legal instruments. In other words, there are not only the transformed forms of legal constructions, but also a perfect legal condition, which could be perceived and designed by means of other sciences. And there is no any layer called «natural law» between this natural condition and the artificial norms of management (legal regulations).

Such a methodological and ideological discourse has resulted in a special logic of legal thinking: the wide empowerment is a framework of any behaviour, with certain rare exceptions (a number of them should be rapidly reduced, and a moral and laws of nature do not count), all public and social institutions are subservient to the unrestrained energy of a personality.

Humans develop laws and a formal jurisprudence in order not to figure out all the time the content and the meaning of these phenomena, not to wonder how they should behave in known situations. Law is considered as a reference point for the interested parties to relations, which helps choose their life positions. Law couldn’t change the spontaneously established order, doesn’t constitute new laws of nature, economics, social life, etc., but it may formalize them, and not more than that.

The actual legal practice presents a very different picture: prohibitions and permissions are not an inherent part of it, but its genesis (prohibitions indicate a natural inability or malignancy of a deed, and permission doesn’t need a formal approval). Meanwhile, there might be the universal binding and the empowering types of legal regulation, and the mechanism of their interpretation represents a shift of natural and artificial paradigms: full understanding of the spontaneous order of things, complete replacement of it with the order of management, deadlock as a result of discovering natural processes by means of the formal legal mechanisms, recognition that the technological maps of management, reproduced in the legal acts, are necessary and sufficient. In other words, the logic of legal thinking is not about searching for the rules of how to come to compelling conclusions, but rather about certain procedural algorithms, which allow the participants of legal communications to behave smoothly, optimally and sustainably in any situation.

Key words: 
legal logic, legal understanding, types of legal regulation, legal hermeneutics, exceptions in law, legal thinking

References

Aleksandrov A. S. Duxless russkogo ugolovno-processual’nogo prava // Ugolovnoe sudoproizvodstvo. 2010. № 1.

Bagehot W. The English Constitution. Oxford, 1928.

Carter J. C. Law. Its Origin, Growth, and Function. N. Y., 1907.

Chestnov I. L. Perspektivy istorii politicheskix i pravovyx uchenij v situacii postmoderna // Istoriya gosudarstva i prava. 2009. № 8.

Ehnciklopedicheskij slovar’ F. A. Brokgauza i I. A. Efrona. SPb., 1890–1907. Ehlementarnye nachala obshhej teorii prava. Pravo i zakon / pod obshh. red. V. I. Chervonyuka. M., 2003.

Finnis Dzh. Estestvennoe pravo i estestvennye prava. M., 2012.

Germashev A. N. K voprosu o metode yuridicheskoj germenevtiki // Obshhestvo i pravo. 2009. № 4.

Iering R. fon. Cel’ v prave. SPb., 2006.

Il’enkov Eh. V. Shkola dolzhna uchit’ myslit’. M.; Voronezh, 2002.

Il’in I. A. Ponyatie prava i sily. M., 1998.

Isaev I. A. «Dux rimskogo prava» i istoricheskaya shkola prava // Istoriya gosudarstva i prava. 2012. № 13.

Korkunov N. M. Lekcii po obshhej teorii prava. SPb., 2004.

Kuxtenkov D. Demokratiya ne po bukve, no po duxu // EhZh-Yurist. 2012. № 39.

Litvinov V. P. Myshlenie po povodu Yazyka v tradicii G. P. Shhedrovickogo. M., 2004.

Morozova L. A. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava: ucheb. 5-e izd., pererab. i dop. M., 2017.

Myuller D. Religiya, razum, demokratiya. M., 2015.

O gosudarstvennoj registracii nedvizhimosti: Federal’nyj zakon ot 13 iyulya 2015 g. № 218-FZ // Ros. gaz. 2015. 17 iyulya.

O gosudarstvennom pensionnom obespechenii v Rossijskoj Federacii: Federal’nyj zakon ot 15 dekabrya 2001 g. № 166-FZ // Ros. gaz. 2001. 20 dek.

O nekotoryx voprosax primeneniya obshhix polozhenij Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii ob obyazatel’stvax i ix ispolnenii: postanovlenie Plenuma Verxovnogo Suda RF ot 22 noyabrya 2016 g. № 54 // Ros. gaz. 2016. 5 dek.

O nezavisimoj ocenke kvalifikacii: Federal’nyj zakon ot 3 iyulya 2016 g. № 238-FZ // SZ RF. 2016. № 27. St. 4171.

O primenenii sudami zakonodatel’stva pri rassmotrenii nekotoryx voprosov, voznikayushhix v xode ispolnitel’nogo proizvodstva: postanovlenie Plenuma Verxovnogo Suda RF ot 17 noyabrya 2015 g. № 50 // Byul. Verxovnogo Suda RF. 2016. № 1.

O samoreguliruemyx organizaciyax v sfere finansovogo rynka: Federal’nyj zakon ot 13 iyulya 2015 g. № 223-FZ // Ros. gaz. 2015. 20 iyulya.

O social’noj zashhite grazhdan, podvergshixsya vozdejstviyu radiacii vsledstvie katastrofy na Chernobyl’skoj AEhS: Zakon RF ot 15 aprelya 1991 g. № 1244-1 // Vedomosti SND RF i VS RSFSR. 1991. № 21. St. 699.

O social’nyx garantiyax sotrudnikam nekotoryx federal’nyx organov ispolnitel’noj vlasti i vnesenii izmenenij v otdel’nye zakonodatel’nye akty Rossijskoj Federacii: Federal’nyj zakon ot 30 dekabrya 2012 g. № 283-FZ // Ros. gaz. 2013. 11 yanv.

O sredstvax massovoj informacii: Zakon RF ot 27 dekabrya 1991 g. № 2124-1 // Ros. gaz. 1992. 8 fevr.

O zanyatosti naseleniya v Rossijskoj Federacii: Zakon RF ot 19 aprelya 1991 g. № 1032-1 // SZ RF. 1993. № 17. St. 1915.

O zashhite konkurencii: Federal’nyj zakon ot 26 iyunya 2006 g. № 135-FZ // Ros. gaz. 2006. 27 iyulya.

O zashhite naseleniya i territorij ot chrezvychajnyx situacij prirodnogo i texnogennogo xaraktera: Federal’nyj zakon ot 21 dekabrya 1994 g. № 68-FZ // Ros. gaz. 1994. 24 dek.

O zashhite prav i zakonnyx interesov fizicheskix lic pri osushhestvlenii deyatel’nosti po vozvratu prosrochennoj zadolzhennosti i o vnesenii izmenenij v Federal’nyj zakon «O mikrofinansovoj deyatel’nosti i mikrofinansovyx organizaciyax»: Federal’nyj zakon ot 3 iyulya 2016 g. № 230-FZ // Ros. gaz. 2016. 6 iyulya.

Ob arbitrazhe (tretejskom razbiratel’stve) v Rossijskoj Federacii: Federal’nyj zakon ot 29 dekabrya 2015 g. № 382-FZ // Ros. gaz. 2015. 31 dek.

Ob utverzhdenii Administrativnogo reglamenta Rostexnadzora po predostavleniyu gosudarstvennoj uslugi po soglasovaniyu pravil ehkspluatacii gidrotexnicheskix sooruzhenij: prikaz Rostexnadzora ot 3 noyabrya 2015 g. № 447 // URL: http://www.pravo.gov.ru.

Ob utverzhdenii Pravil ehkspluatacii i obsluzhivaniya zheleznodorozhnyx putej neobshhego pol’zovaniya: prikaz MPS RF ot 18 iyunya 2003 g. № 26 // Ros. gaz. 2003. 20 iyunya.

Ob utverzhdenii Pravil ehkspluatacii ustrojstv vyzova ehkstrennyx operativnyx sluzhb i vnesenii izmenenij v nekotorye akty Pravitel’stva RF: postanovlenie Pravitel’stva RF ot 6 iyunya 2015 g. № 557 // SZ RF. 2015. № 24. St. 3478.

Ob utverzhdenii SP 2.5.2623-10 (vmeste s SP 2.5.2623-10. Sanitarnye pravila ehkspluatacii metropolitenov): postanovlenie Glavgossanvracha RF ot 30 aprelya 2010 g. № 50 // Ros. gaz. 2010. 23 iyunya.

Opredelenie Verxovnogo Suda RF ot 11 aprelya 2017 g. № 41-KG17-2 // IPS «Garant».

Oriu M. Osnovy publichnogo prava: monogr. M., 2016.

Postanovlenie Verxovnogo Suda RF ot 2 dekabrya 2016 g. № 12-AD16-11 // URL: http://legalacts.ru/sud/postanovlenie-verkhovnogo-suda-rf-ot-02122016-n-12-ad16-11.

Putevoditel’ po osnovnym ponyatiyam i sxemam metodologii Organizacii, Rukovodstva i Upravleniya: xrestomatiya po rabotam G. P. Shhedrovickogo. M., 2004.

Riker P. Spravedlivoe. M., 2005.

Rozin V. M. Ehvolyuciya inzhenernoj i proektnoj deyatel’nosti i mysli: Inzheneriya: stanovlenie, razvitie, tipologiya. M., 2016.

Rozin V. M. Filosofiya prava: Genezis prava. Osobennosti yuridicheskij myshleniya. Prestupnaya lichnost’. M., 2016.

Rozin V. M. Osobennosti diskursa i obrazcy issledovaniya v gumanitarnoj nauke. M., 2009.

Rozin V. M. Priroda social’nosti. Problemy metodologii i ontologii social’nyx nauk. M., 2016.

Rozin V. M. Rol’ social’nogo programmirovaniya i texnologizacii v proektirovanii i modernizacii gorodov. M., 2017.

Saurin A. A. Pravo sobstvennosti v Rossijskoj Federacii. Konstitucionno-pravovye predely realizacii i ogranicheniya: avtoref. dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. M., 2014.

Schutz A. Collected Papers. The Hague, 1962. Vol. 1.

Shhedrovickij G. P. «Yazykovoe myshlenie» i ego analiz. M., 1995.

Shhedrovickij G. P. Processy i struktury v myshlenii. M., 2003 (Ser.: Iz arxiva G. P. Shhedrovickogo T. 6).

Shhedrovickij G. P. Psixologiya i metodologiya. M., 2004.

Shhedrovickij G. P. Sovershenstvovanie i razvitie deyatel’nosti kak sociotexnicheskaya zadacha. M., 1995.

Shvyrev V. S. Formirovanie isxodnyx principov analiza poznayushhego myshleniya. M., 2004.

Sumenkov S. Yu. Isklyucheniya v prave. M., 2016.

Teoriya gosudarstva i prava: ucheb. / otv. red. V. D. Perevalov. 4-e izd., pererab. i dop. M., 2011.

Teoriya gosudarstva i prava: ucheb. / otv. red. V. D. Perevalov; Teoriya gosudarstva i prava: kurs lekcij / pod red. N. I. Matuzova, A. A. Vorotnikova; V. L. Kulapov, N. I. Matuzov, A. V. Mal’ko. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. M., 2017.

Veber M. Osnovnye sociologicheskie ponyatiya / per. s nem. M. I. Levinoj // Veber M. Izbrannye proizvedeniya. M., 1990.

Vrigt G. X. fon. Logiko-filosofskie issledovaniya. Oksford, 1982–1984.

Xajek F. fon. Pravo, zakonodatel’stvo i svoboda. Sovremennoe ponimanie liberal’nyx principov spravedlivosti i politiki. M.; Chelyabinsk, 2007.

Zelenogorskij F. A. Iogann Shad. Logika. M., 1988.